- : Time to Refocus Assessment of Vision in Older Adults? Contrast Sensitivity but Not Visual Acuity Is Associated With Gait in Older Adults. - pubmed: optometry
Time to Refocus Assessment of Vision in Older Adults? Contrast Sensitivity but Not Visual Acuity Is Associated With Gait in Older Adults.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Feb 28;:
Authors: Duggan E, Donoghue O, Kenny RA, Cronin H, Loughman J, Finucane C
Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults.
Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). VA was measured with the LogMAR chart according to the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol. CS was measured at five spatial frequencies ranging 1.5 to 18 cycles per degree (cpd) using the Functional Acuity Contrast Test. Gait speed, cadence, and stride length were measured using the GAITRite system. Multivariate analysis examined associations between gait and visual performance parameters adjusting for socioeconomic, physical, cognitive, and mental health covariates.
Results: Data from 4,678 participants were analyzed (age 61.7 ± 8.3 years, 54.1% woman). Poorer CS at 1.5 cpd and 3.0 cpd (low spatial frequency) was independently associated with decreased stride length (CS at 1.5 cpd: β = .031; p = .001 and CS at 3.0 cpd: β = .020; p = .001) but not cadence or gait speed. There was no evidence of an association between VA and any of the gait variables considered (p > .05).
Conclusion: Reduced CS, at low spatial frequencies, is independently associated with shorter stride length, while VA is not associated with any gait measures. This evidence suggests that it may be necessary to consider refocus of the assessment of vision to include the most appropriate measures.
PMID: 28329377 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- : Thickness of retinal layers in the foveas of children with anisometropic amblyopia. - pubmed: optometry
Thickness of retinal layers in the foveas of children with anisometropic amblyopia.
PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0174537
Authors: Chen W, Xu J, Zhou J, Gu Z, Huang S, Li H, Qin Z, Yu X
PURPOSE: To use highly precise spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to determine whether there were structural abnormalities in the layers of different regions of the fovea in children with anisometropic amblyopia.
METHODS: Eighteen children (mean age 7.8 years old; range 5-11 years) with unilateral anisometropic amblyopia and 18 age-matched control subjects participated. Foveal thickness was measured with an enhanced depth imaging system, SD-OCT and segmented into layers using custom developed software. The thickness of each layer of the fovea was compared among amblyopic eyes, fellow eyes and control eyes with optical magnification correction for axial length and statistical correction for age and sex.
RESULTS: The total thickness and each intra-ocular layer of the central fovea were the same for each group. However, the amblyopic eyes were significantly thicker than the normal control eyes in 2 of 4 quadrants of the peripheral retina. Exploring intra-retinal layers in these two quadrants, the nasal nerve fiber layer (NFL) and inferior inner nuclear layer (INL)were significantly thicker in amblyopic eyes than in control eyes (p = 0.01 and 0.012, respectively, by ANCOVA).
CONCLUSION: The SD-OCT data revealed marginal differences in some foveal layers at peripheral locations and indicated that structural differences might exist between individuals with amblyopia and visually normal control subjects. However, the differences were scattered and represented no identifiable pattern. More studies with large samples and precise locations of the retinal layers must be performed to extend the present results.
PMID: 28328978 [PubMed - in process]
- : Clinical Outcomes and Contact Lens Case Contamination Using a Povidone-Iodine Disinfection System. - pubmed: optometry
Clinical Outcomes and Contact Lens Case Contamination Using a Povidone-Iodine Disinfection System.
Eye Contact Lens. 2017 Mar 21;:
Authors: Tan J, Datta A, Wong K, Willcox MD, Vijay AK
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of adverse events during the use of a povidone-iodine disinfecting solution (cleadew) and the microbial contamination in contact lens cases.
METHODS: A prospective, single-center, open-label, controlled study evaluating the use of cleadew cleaning and disinfecting system in existing daily wear soft contact lens wearers over a 3-month period was conducted. Ocular signs and symptoms during lens wear were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of using cleadew. Contact lens cases were assessed for the frequency of microbial contamination and the types of microbes, using traditional microbial culture, followed by identification of bacteria using 16S rRNA sequencing.
RESULTS: Use of cleadew was well tolerated. There was reduction in corneal staining (0.5±0.5 at 3 months of use) compared with the participant's habitual multipurpose disinfecting system (1.1±1.0); all other clinical signs were not significantly different. There were no cases of solution-induced corneal staining. There was a low adverse event rate of 0.8% per 100 participant-months. Contact lens case contamination was low, with 30% of cases having no culturable microbes. Comparison with previously published data showed that use of cleadew resulted in low frequencies of Gram-positive (49%) and fungal (8%) contamination and a low, but higher than some other disinfecting solutions, level of Gram-negative bacteria.
CONCLUSIONS: Cleadew cleaning and disinfecting system was associated with low levels of adverse events during use. Contact lens cases were significantly less frequently contaminated than for some other types of disinfecting solutions.
PMID: 28328726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- : Region-Specific Changes in Postlens Fluid Reservoir Depth Beneath Small-Diameter Scleral Lenses Over 2 Hours. - pubmed: optometry
Region-Specific Changes in Postlens Fluid Reservoir Depth Beneath Small-Diameter Scleral Lenses Over 2 Hours.
Eye Contact Lens. 2017 Mar 21;:
Authors: Nau CB, Schornack MM
OBJECTIVES: Scleral lenses settle on the eye with time, and the depth of the postlens fluid reservoir decreases. We measured changes in central, superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal clearance beneath a small-diameter scleral lens after 2 hr of lens wear in healthy eyes.
METHODS: Thirty-one participants (age, mean±SD, 29±7 years) with no history of eye disease or scleral lens wear were fitted with a 15-mm scleral lens in 1 eye. Scheimpflug images were acquired by a camera system within 5 min of lens placement and again after 2 hr of continuous lens wear. The central cornea was located in both horizontal and vertical meridians, and lens clearance was measured at that point. Lens clearance was also measured 2 mm superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal to the center of the cornea.
RESULTS: After 2 hr of lens wear, central clearance was reduced 46% (mean [SD], from 227  to 122  μm; P<0.001). Superior clearance was reduced 48% (from 168  to 87  μm); inferior clearance, 54% (from 241  to 111  μm); temporal clearance, 45% (from 224  to 124  μm); and nasal clearance, 52% (from 166  to 80  μm) (P<0.001 for all). Statistically significant decreases in clearance were noted at all points assessed after 2 hr of lens wear.
CONCLUSIONS: Fluid reservoir depth beneath small-diameter scleral lenses decreased nearly 50% after 2 hr of lens wear in normal eyes.
PMID: 28328725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
- : Inhibition of cathepsin S confers sensitivity to methyl protodioscin in oral cancer cells via activation of p38 MAPK/JNK signaling pathways. - pubmed: optometry
Inhibition of cathepsin S confers sensitivity to methyl protodioscin in oral cancer cells via activation of p38 MAPK/JNK signaling pathways.
Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 22;7:45039
Authors: Hsieh MJ, Lin CW, Chen MK, Chien SY, Lo YS, Chuang YC, Hsi YT, Lin CC, Chen JC, Yang SF
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Approximately 90% of oral cancers are subtyped to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Despite advances in diagnostic techniques and improvement in treatment modalities, the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, an effective chemotherapy mechanism that enhances tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methyl protodioscin (MP) is a furostanol bisglycoside with a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antitumor activity of MP on OSCC and its underlying mechanisms. Our results show that treatment of OSCC cells with MP potently inhibited cell viability. Moreover, MP leading to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, which subsequently activates caspase-3, -8, -9 and PARP to induce cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that MP induces a robust autophagy in OSCC cells. The results indicate cathepsin S (CTSS) is involved in MP-induced apoptosis and autophagy by modulation of p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways. These findings may provide rationale to combine MP with CTSS blockade for the effective treatment of OSCC.
PMID: 28327651 [PubMed - in process]